10 de julio de 2024

31 de mayo de 2023

Sanazarius spp (Tingidae)

3 species recorded from South Africa:

Sanazarius Distant, 1904

Type species: Sanazarius cuneatus Distant

  • Sanazarius biseriatus Drake
  • Sanazarius cuneatus Distant
  • Sanazarius productus Distant

Sanazarius cuneatus
Fig. 37, page 47: https://www.maff.go.jp/pps/j/guidance/r_bulletin/pdf/rb57_006.pdf

Literature dealing with Sanazarius

Sanazarius cuneatus
--> Paranota with lateral angles subacutely produced

Sanazarius productus
--> Paranota broadly transversely produced and obtusely angulate

Sanazarius biseriatus
--> Costal area of hemelytra with two rows of areolae
--> Paranota with rounded outer margins

Publicado el 31 de mayo de 2023 a las 09:17 AM por traianbertau traianbertau | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

27 de mayo de 2023

Lopholagria spp in Southern Africa

Literature dealing with Lopholagria

Fåhraeus, O. I. von, 1870. Coleoptera Caffrariae annis 1838-1854 a J. A. Wahlberg collecta. Heteromera. In: Översigt af Kungliga Akademiens Förhandlingar, 1870 no 4: 243-358
--> Lagria amoena (type species of the genus Lopholagria Borchmann, 1916; current name: Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus, 1870)
"Lagria amoena: oblonga, nigra, flavo-pilosa, thorace vage punctato, medio longitudinaliter excavato, cavitate dense fulvo-villosa; elytris rufo-testaceis, rugoso-punctatis. Long. 10, lat. 3 1/2 millim. ♀.

Caput supra depressum, rugoso-punctatum, inter antennas transversim sulcatum. Antennae basin thoracis vix excedentes, apicem versus incrassate, articulo 3:o sequente paullo longiore, obconico, 5-10 transversis, ultimo subtriangulari, antecedente parum longiore. Thorax subquadratus, aequaliter rotundato-ampliatus, antice posticeque truncatus, supra modice convexus, vage punctatus, flavo-pilosus, medio longitudinaliter late exeavatus, cavitate densissime fulvo-villosa. Elytra antice basi thoracis duplo latiora, longe ultra medium sensim dilatata, apice conjunctim subrotundata, thorace quadruplo longiora, supra modice convexa, crebre rugoso-punctata, rufo-testacea. Corpus subtus parum convexum, vage punctatum, nigrum, nitidum, abdominis apice maculisque lateralibus plus minusve rufescentibus, Pedes breviusculi, nigri, dense pilosi."

Borchmann, Fritz. 1915. Die Lagriinae (Unterfamilie der Lagriidae.). In: Archiv für Naturgeschichte – 81A_6: 46 - 186
--> genus Lopholagria - one species = Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus (p. 97-98)
"Gattung Lopholagria n. g.
Der Seitenrand des Halsschildes ist undeutlich. Die Fühler sind nach außen beim ♂ stark verdickt und vom 5. Gliede an quer; das Endglied ist kürzer als die zwei vorhergehenden Glieder zusammen. Der Halsschild ist der Länge nach stark und breit eingedrückt. Die Furche ist mit gelbroten Haaren angefüllt.
1 Art. Länge 9—11 mm. Mäßig gewölbt, nach hinten wenig erweitert; dunkel braunschwarz, oft die ganze Oberseite oder nur die Flügeldecken gelbbraun; Vorderkörper lang und ziemlich dicht; Flügeldecken kürzer rotgelb behaart.
Ost-Afrika, Südafrika. L. amoena Fähr.
A. amoena Fähr., Öfv. Vet. Akad. Förh. XXVII, 1870, p. 329. — Ost- und Südafrika."
Note: Borchmann uses in this publication the name Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus and can not know of Thunberg's specimens described in 1821 and later sent to him (via Schenkling) for species determination.

Thunberg, Carl Peter 1821. Coleoptera Capensia antennis fusiformibus.
In: Nova Acta Regia Societas Scientiarum Upsaliensis, 8: 157-193
--> Clerus villosus (page 175)
Thunberg decribes this supposedly new species and three unnamed variants.
According to current taxonomy none of these 'species' are valid and at least four coleopterists have published their opinions on these specimens (Schenkling, Borchmann, Merkel, Ferrer) and the latter three created some confusion making uncorrect assumptions, ignoring or misreading the already existing publications and confusing names.
One of Thunberg's specimens (var 3:o "thorace fulvo-villoso") represents Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus.

Schenkling, Sigmund. 1925. Über einige Coleopteren-Typen von C. P. Thunberg. In: Entomologisk Tidskrift vol. 46 (4): 202-203.
Schenkeling deals in this short paper with Clerus villosus Thunberg and Borchmann's determination of this set of five specimens under the name Clerus villosus, consisting of different species (all of them are Lagriina spp).
--> Clerus villosus Thunberg α var 1 "ano rufo" = Lagria villosa Fabricius
--> Clerus villosus Thunberg β (1 specimen) = the true Clerus villosus with black abdomen according to Schenkling = Lagria villosa Fabricius according to Borchmann 1936
--> Clerus villosus Thunberg γ var 2 "elytris violacei" = Lagria villosa Fabricius var. confusa Reiche
--> Clerus villosus Thunberg δ var 3 "thorace fulvo-villoso" = Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus
Note: The determination of these specimens are published in Borchmann 1936

Pic, Maurice. 1930. Nouveautés diverses. Mélanges exotico-entomologiques 55: 1–36
--> Lopholagria amoena var. atricolor (page 24)
Pic mentions a new variety without any details: "Totis niger. Rhodesia"

Borchmann, Fritz. 1936. Coleoptera, Heteromera, Fam. Lagriidae.
In: Wytsman, P. ed. Genera Insectorum. Fasc. 204. Louis Desmet Verteneuil, Brussels, 561 pp. 2 pl
--> genus Lopholagria (p. 161-163)
--> Lopholagria villosa Thunberg
--> another 5 Afrotropical spp. of Lopholagria (not Southern Africa)
--> Plates: mouthparts of Lopholagria amoena Tafel 1, fig 5e & 5f ; Tafel 4 fig 25b
--> Lagria villosa Fabricius (page 52)
(Lagria villosa Fabricius is a partial synonym of Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus)
Note: Borchmann uses boths names Lopholagria villosa Thunberg and Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus describing the same species which is part of the confusion!

Merkl, Otto. 2004. On Taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution of some palaearctic Lagriini with description of a new species from Taiwan. (Col. Tenebrionidae). In: Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 50 (45): 283- 305
--> Lopholagria villosa Thunberg, 1821
"Lopholagria villosa (THUNBERG, 1821). THUNBERG (1821: 175) described Clerus villosus on the basis of five specimens which are regarded as syntypes. Four of them belong to Lagria villosa FABRICIUS, 1781: 160 (a common African species which extends to the Palaearctic region in Yemen), while the fifth represents a taxon which is the type species of Lopholagria BORCHMANN, 1916: 97, by original
monotypy. BORCHMANN mentioned the type species under the name Lagria amoena FÅHRAEUS, 1870: 329, that he later (BORCHMANN 1936: 136) placed in synonymy of Clerus villosus. To avoid homonymy and to preclude proposing an unnecessary replacement name, and to fix Lopholagria villosa, this specimen is herewith designated as the lectotype of Clerus villosus, so the remaining four are paralectotypes. The lectotype has the pronotum with a deep medial impression filled with dense golden pubescence (a diagnostic feature of Lopholagria), so fits the third variety mentioned (but not named) by THUNBERG in the same description (“Variat 3:o thorace fulvo-villoso”). Lectotype, female (MEUU), pinned, labelled as follows: 1) Uppsala Univ. Zool. Mus. Thunbergsaml. nr. 6653 Clerus villosus TYP [printed on red paper]. Four paralectotypes (MEUU), pinned, labelled as follows: 1) Uppsala Univ. Zool. Mus. Thunbergsaml. nr. 6649 [or] 6650 [or] 6651 [or] 6652 Clerus villosus TYP [printed on red paper; the specimen 6651 has the additional text “Lagria. F.” before “TYP”.]."
Note: Merkl is aware of Borchmann's use of the two different names, but ignores the details: Borchmann 1916 does not mention the species under the name Lagria amoena FÅHRAEUS, but as Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus. Borchmann 1936 does not place Lagria amoena Fåhraeus in synonymy of Clerus villosus Thunberg, but clearly states that Clerus villosus var δ is a junior synonym of Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus whereas Thunberg's other specimens belong to Lagria villosa Fabricius. Furthermore Merkl ignores the fact that Borchmann 1936 does not explicitely make a taxonomic change from Lopholagria amoena (used in 1916) to Lopholagria villosa (used in 1936), but uses both names in his 1936 publication without any explanation of a name change; Borchmann uses L. villosa only in the Lopholagria section (p. 162-163), whereas he uses Lopholagria amoena in the Lagria villosa section (p. 52), in the index (p. 543) and the plates (also in the index to the plates). Whether Borchmann intended a name change or just used "L. VILLOSA Thb" in error is open to interpretation. But Merkl's assumption that Clerus villosus Thunberg is a synonym of Lagria villosa Fabricius and therefore all varieties of Clerus villosus Thunberg are also synonyms of Lagria villosa is short-sighted and ignores the fact that one of them had been placed under Lagria amoena Fåhraeus which had changed in 1916 to Lopholagria amoena.

Ferrer, Julio. 2009. The types of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) described by Thunberg (1821,1827) in "Coleoptera Capensia" and other papers, with taxonomic comments. In: Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 44 (2009): 111-129.
--> Clerus villosus = Lopholagria villosa (Thunberg, 1821 a) = Lopholagria villosa (Fabricius, 1781) [in the abstract and page 118]
Note: Ferrer makes Lagria villosa Fabricius a junior synonym of Lopholagria villosa Thunberg which does not make any sense and must be in error (either adding a new error or following Borchmann or Merkl using Lopholagria villosa)
---> Lopholagria amoena Fåhraeus is a good species (page 118)
Ferrer repeats Merkl's findings and also repeats Merkl's misreading of Borchmann 1936 claiming that Borchmann had established synonymy of Lagria villosa Fabricius = Clerus villosus Thunberg but explains clearly that Clerus villosus Thunberg represents two species, one being Lagria villosa Fabricius, the other one being Lagria amoena Fåhraeus. ("Lagria amoena Fåhraeus, 1870, is the type species of the genus Lopholagria Borchmann, 1916, and the current name combination is Lopholagria amoena (Fähraeus, 1870). Clerus villosus Thunberg, 1821 a is a species composita, consisting in two different taxa: The specimens Types 6649-6652 belongs to Lagria villosa Fabricius, 1781. The syntype 6653 Clerius
villosus var. 3, Thunberg 1821 a, belongs to another genus and is Lopholagria amoena (Fåhraeus, 1870)").


There is currently only one valid species of Lopholagria from Southern Africa described: Lopholagria amoena (Fåhraeus, 1870).
According to original description this species should be black with yellow hairs and with the elytra rufo-testaceous. (and of course the pronotum should have a deep medial impression filled with dense golden pubescence)

According to Borchmann this species is variable in colour: being pitch dark, but sometimes the upperside and the elytra being yellow. But it is not clear what material Borchmann had used to compile his description and whether he had seen any specimens other than a mentioned "cotype" which is probably none of the syntypes of L. amoena. Had Borchmann ever seen specimens in various colour forms that lead him to his description?
Another questions is what colour exactly "rufo-testaceus" should be.

Looking at the observations on iNat, there are all sorts of colour forms, but only a few have orange elytra and most have very dark elytra. Are these dark ones then a dark from as per Borchmann or is L. amoena maybe a species complex or a species group?

Also, it is not true, that Lopholagria is a montypic genus, Borchmann lists another four species from Africa. Whether or not these are valid species, I don't know. But one should at least consider that not all specimens from Southern Africa are necessarily Lopholagria amoena, just because this used to be state of knowledge in 1916.

Publicado el 27 de mayo de 2023 a las 04:59 PM por traianbertau traianbertau | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

26 de marzo de 2023